MINISTRIA E KULTURES, RINISE DHE SPORTEVE TE SHQIPERISE
MINISTRY OF CULTURE, YOUTH AND SPORTS OF ALBANIA


GALERIA KOMBETARE E ARTEVE
NATIONAL GALLERY OF ARTS

MARUBI 2003

 


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COVER CATALOGUE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Pinhole section

 Camera Obscura


The camera is just a box with a hole on it. I described it as such, to all my friends whom were interested to know more about the magic box, what we usually call photographic camera. The elementary instrument able to reproduce the image was in fact known even in ancient times and it was called “stenos opaios”, EQUIPED WITH A SMALL HOLE, translated from Greek. An empty dark box, with a millimetric hole on it in one side and a paper treated with a material sensitive to the light in the other side. Nothing more. The principle of the image creation projected on a surface using a hole is known thousand of years before.
Aristotle speaks of the stenopheich hole, while the Arab sages used it in astronomy to observe the solar eclipses . ...
Marubi 2003 was accompanied for the first time in the history of this activity by a pavillion of Pinhole Photography “Camera Obscura”
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Pinhole Photography has also its winner. The Special Prize Pinhole Photography is awarded to Gregg Kemp from USA. The prize is sponsored by Zero Image (Hong Kong)


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Aparati fotografik ėshtė njė kuti me vrimė. Kėshtu do ta pėrshkruaja kohė mė parė pėr miqtė e mi qė interesoheshin tė dinin diēka mė shumė pėr atė kuti magjike qė quhet rėndom aparati fotografik Instrumenti mė elementar i aftė pėr riprodhimin e imazhit nė fakt ėshtė njohur qė nė kohėt e hershme dhe quhej “stenos opaios” I PAJISUR ME NJE VRIME TE VOGEL i pėrkthyer nga greqishtja.
Njė kuti bosh e errėt, me njė vrimė milimetrike nė njėrėn anė tė saj dhe njė fletė e trajtuar me njė material sensibilizues ndaj dritės e vendosur nė anėn tjetėr. Asgjė mė tepėr.
Principi i formimit tė imazhit tė projektuar mbi njė siperfaqe, duke shfrytėzuar njė vrimė, ėshtė i njohur prej mijėra vjetėsh. Aristoteli flet pėr vrimėn stenopeike dhe dijetarėt arabė e kanė pėrdorur nė astronomi pėr vrojtimin e eklipseve diellore. ...
“Marubi 2003” u shoqėrua pėr herė tė parė nė historinė e kėtij aktiviteti nga njė pavion i fotografive Pinhole nė “Camera Obscura”
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Fotografia “Pinhole” pati gjithashtu fituesin e saj. Ēmimi special i fotografisė “Pinhole” ju dha Gregg Kemp nga SHBA. Ky ēmim u sponsorizua nga Zero Image (Hong Kong)



Exhibition : Retrospective Ymer Bali - Albania

PHOTO BALI – THE SIGNATURE OF LOVE FOR HUMAN BEINGS


Ymer (Mer) Bali will forever remain in the Pantheon of the best Albanian photographers. The Albanian art of photography incorporates a rich collection of this master’s work who lived and worked during the XIX century and the mid XX century.
For its historic, artistic and professional values his work is ranked long aside with the other Albanian masters of photography such as Marubi, Idromeno, Sotiri, Pici, Burda, Kallfa and other co-living artists.
The work of Balit, a rich and diverse collection belongs to the white and black photography. You can notice in Bali’s photography lyric emotions, as regards to his paysages or when he focused human behaviour or the life of animals and the dead nature of objects. He was one of the masters of portraits, individual or family ones, distinguished for the clear play with effects and light and shadow interferences, including the compositional concept as well.
Approximately 500 photos of Ymer Balit are preserved in the private collection of the well-known collector, Thimi Nika. From this collection the Curator Ilir Butka selected 38 works, which are exposed for the first time in “Marubi” 2003 for the Albanian and the International public.


Ekspozitė : Retrospektive Ymer Bali - Albania
FOTO BALI - NENSHKRIMI I DASHURISE PER NJEREZIT


Ymer ( Mer) Bali do tė mbetet pėrherė nė Panteonin e fotografėve mė tė mirė tė Shqipėrisė. Arti i fotografisė shqiptare mban njė koleksion tejet tė pasur tė krijimtarisė sė kėtij mjeshtri, i cili jetoi e punoi nė fund tė shekullit XIX dhe deri nė mes tė shekullit XX. Pėr nga vlerat historike, artistike e profesionale, ai rradhitet me dinjitet perkrah Marubeve, Idromenos, Sotirit, Picit, Burdės, Kallfės dhe fotografėve tė tjerė bashkėkohės.
Krijimtaria e Balit, njė fond tejet i pasur dhe i larmishem, i pėrket kohės sė fotografisė bardh e zi. Ajo tė pėrball me emocione tė shumta lirike, si kur shikon peisazhet e fokusuara mjeshtėrisht nė aparatin e tij, ashtu dhe kur ndjek dokumentimin tradicional, korrekt e realist te botes sė njerėzve dhe sendeve, ngjarjeve e situatave tė pėrditshme e nga mė tė ndryshmet e kohės. Po kėshtu, nėpėrmjet objektivit te tij, Bali ka modeluar dhe fiksuar bukur portrete tė shumta e tė pakrahasueshme familjare apo individėsh, qė shquhen pėr njė botė tė pasur dhe kėndvėshtrime artistike origjinale, pėr vlera tė spikaturadhe tė pėrcaktuara qartė si nė lojėn e efekteve dhe tė inteferencave dritė-hije ashtu dhe pėr anėn kompozicionale.
Rreth 500 foto tė Balit ndodhen nė koleksionin privat tė koleksionistit tė njohur Thimi Nika. Kuratori Ilir Butka pėrzgjodhi 38 prej tyre dhe i paraqiti pėr herė tė parė nė ekspoziten “Marubi” 2003.
 

Special Guest / Tė ftuar special
Exhibition : Special Guest Joachim Ladefoged
Ekspozitė : I ftuar Special Joachim Ladefoged
 





From "Camera Obscura" to the “Pinhole photography”

The camera is just a box with a hole on it. I described it as such, to all my friends whom were interested to know more about the magic box, what we usually call photographic camera.
The elementary instrument able to reproduce the image was in fact known even in ancient times and it was called “stenos opaios”, EQUIPED WITH A SMALL HOLE, translated from Greek.
An empty dark box, with a millimetric hole on it in one side and a paper treated with a material sensitive to the light in the other side. Nothing more.

The principle of the image creation projected on a surface using a hole is known thousand of years before. Aristotle speaks of the stenopheich hole, while the Arab sages used it in astronomy to observe the solar eclipses.
Alchindus, the Arab scientist of the IX-th century wrote an important treaty on this argument with precise references to the mathematical rules which have an impact on the correct functioning of the “camerae obscurae”, made known through a translation of Gherardo da Cremona in the XII-th century.
Another Arab sage of the same period as Alchindus who describes the “camera obscura” in another important writing is Abu Ali al Hassan al Haitam, otherwise known as Al Hazen. References for the instrument used by him are found in the writings of Bacone (1214-1294), as well as in those of Levi ben Gerson (1320). While in 1521 Cesare Cesarioano publishes “Commentari a Vitruvio” describing the experiments made with the stenopheich hole.
The most clear and detailed description is made by Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) in his work named “Codice Atlantico” where for the first time, the structure of the human eye is commented as a “camera obscura”.
Another knowledgeable called Giovan Battista Della Porta (1538-1615) suggests for the first time that a lens may be applied to the hole. This was the initial step for the creation of the portable “camera obscura” as a working tool for the outliners of that time.
By the years 1600, the camera obscura indeed constitutes the most useful tool for the outliners and the painters. One of the most typical examples is Antonio Canal known as Canaleto, who had perfect knowledge on how the objective functions, the correct application of the focus, etc. Since that time many camera obscura were equipped with a mirror placed in 45 degrees position which would deviate the image transmitted through the hole and directed to the upper part of the box, in other words, what would later be called the REFLEX apparatus. 
While the involvement of chemistry in photographic developments belongs to a much later period (1839). The first results came in 1856 when Sir David Brewster for the first time mentioned the instrument called “Stereoscope” and the working method described as “Pinhole Photography”.
The most antique preserved photos are made in 1880 by Flinders Petrie (archaeolog 1835-1942) during a discovery campaign in Egypt.
The stenopeich photography reached its peak in the period known as “Pittorialista”.
In 1890 George Davidson (creator and director of the “Eastman Photographic Materials Company” later to be named KODAK) won the first prize in the yearly exhibition of the “Photographic Society of London”, with a photo realized through this technique.
During the same period various models of stenopeich photo cameras were commercialised. Judging from the characteristics and the price, those cameras would be compared to the contemporaries “use and throw away”. The most popular were “Ready Photographer” and “Glen Pinhole Camera”, but the first project of the commercial stenopeich apparatus is the one of 1887 branded Dehors & Deslandres, made by six holes with different diameters and produced in three various models. After a long absence from the scene of photography, during the years 30 of the XX-th century, this stenopeich apparatus was reintroduced by Frederick Brehm of the “Rochester Institute of Technology” by taking already the form of a PHILOSOPHY with representatives such as Paolo Gioli in Italy, Gottfried Jaeger in Germany, David Lebe, Wiley Sanderson and Eric Renner in United States. 

ILIR BUTKA

 

LINKS

Zero Image






http://www.pinholevisions.org

http://pinholeresource.com

 

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